Notícies

Xifres per a quantificar l’èxode juvenil

Categories: Món laboral

28 de maig de 2013

El sindicat juvenil Avalot ha presentat l’Informe “Generació JESP (Joves Emigrants Sobradament Preparats) 2013. Aquest informe recull tot un seguit de dades que confirmen allò que fa temps que denunciem: cada cop són més les persones joves de Barcelona i Catalunya es veuen obligades a marxar a la recerca d’oportunitats laborals i vitals dignes.

Segons l’informe, en el darrer any ha augmentat en un 9,36% el nombre de catalans i catalanes residents a l’estranger, situant-se en 203.250 persones. Si ens fixem en la franja de persones joves (en aquest cas, persones entre 15 i 34 anys) veiem que són el 24,92% del total o sigui, 50.640 persones en termes absoluts.

En aquest cas, s’ha experimentat un augment del 10,14% en relació a l’any anterior, i del 42,46% respecte fa 4 anys, fet que suposa que hi ha 15.093 joves més residint a l’estranger. Hem de tenir en compte que aquestes dades estan extretes del “padró d’habitants residents a l’estranger” que recull l’IDESCAT i que per tant, caldria afegir un gran nombre de persones joves que continuen empadronades a Catalunya pel caràcter incert o temporal que té el seu exili.

És especialment rellevant el cas de la ciutat de Barcelona, ja que com recull l’informe de l’Avalot, el 2012 van ser expulsats 28.016 joves a l’estranger, xifra que suposa un increment del 46% des del 2009 i més de la meitat de gent jove que marxa de tot el país.

Pel que fa les destinacions que trien aquestes persones joves que es veuen forçades a marxar per la manca d’oportunitats, el 42% tria Europa com a destinació, el 36% Amèrica del Sud, i el 17% es reparteix entre Amèrica Central i del Nord, Àsia, Àfrica i Oceania.

Un altre aspecte que recull l’informe, és el perfil de les persones joves que volen marxar. Segons l’assessoria de Mobilitat Internacional de la Regidoria d’Adolescència i Joventut de l’Ajuntament de Barcelona, el 44% de les consultes realitzades són per treballar a l’estranger, el 25% per anar-hi a fer pràctiques, el 17% per fer un voluntariat i el 2% per anar-hi a estudiar. D’altra banda, segons un estudi realitzat a partir d’informació facilitada per col·legis professionals, associacions, federacions, sindicats i actors del sector públic de l’Estat Espanyol, s’estableix que són les persones professionals de les àrees de sanitat, arquitectura i enginyeria, les més demandades a nivell internacional, juntament amb les persones científiques i investigadores.

Per què emigren?

Segons l’última enquesta de l’EPA (1r trimestre 2013), la taxa d’atur per la gent jove de 16 a 29 anys es situa al 39,9%, xifra que es dispara si agafem la franja d’edat dels 16 als 24, la qual es troba al 52,7%. També cal destacar que en el darrer any ha augmentat l’atur entre les persones titulades universitàries (en un 10,3%), entre les que han cursat formació professional (10,5%) i les persones amb titulació tècnica-superior (15,7%).

Altres dades rellevants que descriuen la situació de la gent jove, és el fet que l’atur de llarga durada en joves de 16 a 29 anys és del 18,8%, mentre que el de la resta d’adults es situa al 12,7%. Aquestes xifres d’atur van lligades amb la destrucció de llocs de treball. En l’últim any han desaparegut un 15,5% de llocs de treball ocupats per joves, però si tenim en compte el percentatge de llocs de treball destruïts des del 2007, la xifra es dispara fins el 66,8%. Pel que fa a la temporalitat entre les persones d’entre els 16 i els 29 anys, es situa al 40,3% (front el 12,9% de la resta de població), mentre que la taxa d’emancipació es troba en el 25,5%, a nivells de 2003.

Per tots aquest motius, no ens sorprèn que en els últims 4 anys s’hagi incrementat en un 42,46% les persones joves que es veuen obligades a emigrar. Aquest panorama desolador té un impacte negatiu no només en la gent jove que veu com no té opcions de treballar i per tant de desenvolupar el seu projecte de vida autònom, sinó que té conseqüències negatives per la societat ja que tot aquest talent que podria revertir-hi, marxa cap a altres països on les oportunitats de tenir un lloc de treball digne són reals.

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