Notícies

La situació laboral de les persones joves no millora

Categories: Món laboral Notícies

4 de setembre de 2013

L’Observatori Català de la Joventut ha publicat el nou informe sobre la situació laboral de les persones joves a partir de les dades extretes de l’Enquesta de Població Activa (EPA) referents al segon trimestre de 2013. Les dades que recull l’informe no mostren cap millora, i continuen mostrant una tendència negativa pel que fa a la situació laboral dels i les joves catalanes.

En termes d’ocupació, el sector servei és el que acumula el volum més important de força laboral a Catalunya: el 78,9% de les persones joves ocupades ho estan en aquest sector. El sector de la construcció ha passat de ser del 14,9% el 2007 a només representar el 4% de les persones joves ocupades en el segon trimestre de 2013. Les persones joves tenen en general feines de més baixa qualificació que les persones adultes i també tenen una taxa de temporalitat molt més elevada. El 41,8% de joves contractades ho estan en un contracte temporal (entre les persones adultes és del 13,6%) i sembla ser que hi torna haver una tendència a l’alça pel que fa a la temporalitat. En l’últim trimestre ha augmentat 1,5 punts i respecte el 2n trimestre del 2009, s’ha incrementat en més de 7 unts.

Pel que fa a l‘atur juvenil, aquest es situa en el 39,4% que en xifres absolutes suposa que a Catalunya hi ha 260.100 joves d’entre 16 i 29 anys a l’atur. Aquesta xifra ha disminuït un 0,5% respecte el trimestre anterior, però ha augmentat en un 2,3% i un 10,1% si es compara amb les dades del segon trimestre de l’any passat i les del segon trimestre del 2011 respectivament. Per tant, es considera que des del 2011 i sobretot des del 2012, s’ha entrat en una altra tendència a l’alça de l’atur juvenil.

Un dels factors més preocupants és el que fa referència a la destrucció d’ocupació i com aquesta afecta al col·lectiu jove. Del segon trimestre del 2012 al de 2013 han desaparegut un 10,2% de llocs de treball ocupats per joves, i si s’observen els llocs de treball desapareguts des de l’inici de la crisi (segon trimestre 2007), el 60,6% corresponen a llocs ocupats per joves.

Un dels canvis que s’ha observat respecte als trimestres anteriors és que les taxes d’atur juvenil masculí i femení s’han aproximat deixant un marge de diferència de només un 2,2%. Recordem que des de l’esclat de la crisi, l’atur entre els homes ha superat el de les dones, fenomen excepcional ja que tradicionalment l’atur femení ha estat més elevat. Una possible explicació d’aquest fenomen és el major nivell educatiu que tenen les dones joves respecte als homes joves, i que per tant, els ha permès suportar millor la destrucció d’ocupació. Les persones joves amb un nivell d’estudis inferiors i les persones joves estrangeres són el perfil a qui més afecte l’atur juvenil.

Per acabar cal mencionar unes dades que posen de manifest la dramàtica problemàtica que suposa tenir una taxa d’atur juvenil tan elevat. Des del 2007 el nivell d’atur de llarga durada no ha parat d’augmentar situant-se en aquest segon trimestre de 2013 en el seu màxim històric: 19,3%. Aquest indicador no només quantifica el percentatge de població jove activa que està desocupada i que busca feina des de fa un any o més, sinó que també serveix per a indicar el risc d’exclusió social. Aquest fet suposa l’existència creixent d’un perill de cronificació de l’atur entre la joventut, un fet del tot preocupant. A més, cal afegir, que els subsidis o prestacions econòmiques per a les persones desocupades joves només cobreix a un 15% de les joves aturades, percentatge que ha disminuït en 4,6 punts respecte el mateix trimestre de l’any passat.

 Des del Consell de la Joventut de Barcelona, veiem com trimestre rere trimestre, les xifres que descriuen la situació laboral de les persones joves que viuen a Catalunya i Barcelona no paren d’empitjorar. La situació és cada vegada més preocupant i cal que els governs de tots els nivells de l’administració pública busquin solucions per fer-hi front. Per això considerem positiva la celebració, el passat 24 de juliol, del Ple monogràfic sobre atur juvenil en el si del Parlament de Catalunya per tal d’abordar aquesta problemàtica de manera transversal. Tot i així lamentem que no s’aprovés cap dotació pressupostària per a combatre l’atur juvenil a partir dels múltiples plans d’ocupació i formació proposats, i que no es deroguessin les taxes universitàries ni les de formació professional. Des del CJB pensem que cal implementar polítiques públiques que afrontin aquesta situació que s’ha vist empitjorada per la crisi econòmica i les mesures preses per pal·liar-la, però que es tracta d’un problema estructural que fa anys que arrosseguem.

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