Notícies

Algunes millores, però la dramàtica situació d’atur juvenil, no canvia

Categories: Món laboral

4 de novembre de 2013

L’Observatori Català de la Joventut ha elaborat el nou informe sobre la situació laboral de les persones joves a Catalunya a partir de les dades del tercer trimestre de l’Enquesta de Població Activa. Tot i que s’observen lleugeres millores, ens trobem lluny de celebrar les noves xifres.

En primer lloc, s’observa que la taxa d’activitat del col·lectiu de joves de 16 a 29 anys es situa en el 67,9%, percentatge que ha augmentat en 6,6 punts respecte el trimestre anterior però només d’un punt percentual respecte el mateix trimestre de l’any anterior. Així, un 42,6% d’aquestes persones joves que formen la taxa d’activitat estan ocupades, mentre que el 25,3% restant, és el percentatge de joves que estan a l’atur respecte el total de la població (l’anomenat coeficient d’atur juvenil).

Segons l’Informe, les dades d’aquest tercer trimestre “indiquen un clar efecte estacional de l’ocupació com a conseqüència del turisme d’estiu”. Aquest efecte estacional es manifesta en l’augment de la població ocupada (39% el trimestre anterior, 42,6 en l’actual) i en l’increment del pes del sector serveis entre les persones ocupades (d’un 78,9% a un 79,7%). Si ens fixem en quin tipus d’ocupació desenvolupen aquestes persones joves ocupades, resulta en que desenvolupen feines de més baixa qualificació que les persones adultes, quasi el 30% són persones treballadores de restauració, serveis personals o vendes i que el 48,5% de persones joves contractades ho estan amb un contracte temporal (han augmentat un 6,7% respecte el trimestre anterior).

Pel que fa a l’atur juvenil, aquest es situa en el 36,1% (243.000 joves a l’atur) entre joves de 16 a 29 anys, i augmenta fins un 47% si ens centrem en el tram d’edat de 16 a 24 anys. Respecte el trimestre anterior, l’atur juvenil cau un 3,3% tot i que si es compara amb l’any anterior, només es registra una disminució de la taxa d’atur juvenil del 0,7%. Seguint la tendència des de l’esclat de la crisi, l’atur entre els homes joves segueix essent major que entre les dones joves; aquest trimestre el femení ha disminuït quasi un 5% respecte l’anterior trimestre. Ser home, tram d’edat més jove, estranger i amb un nivell formatiu baix, són les característiques que defineixen el perfil de persona jove a qui més impacte l‘atur juvenil.

Una dada que és important tenir present, és aquella que fa referència a l’efecte desigual que ha tingut la crisi sobre joves i adults pel que fa la reducció de llocs de treball. Així, de tots els llocs de treball destruïts des del l’inici de la crisi (3r trimestre 2007), un 58,2% corresponen a llocs de treball ocupats per persones joves. Per tant, des de l’inici de la crisi s’han destruït quasi la meitat de llocs de treball ocupats per joves, concretament, aquest trimestre hi ha 398.900 llocs de treball menys ocupats per joves que el 2007.

Un element positiu és el fet que l’atur de llarga durada, el qual quantifica el percentatge de població activa que està desocupada i busca feina des de fa 1 any o més, es situa en el 16,1%, 3 punts menys que el trimestre anterior, moment en el qual es va situar en el màxim històric. Tot i així, aquesta dada indica que gairebé la meitat de joves que es troben a l’atur ho estan des de fa 1 any o més, i per tant, significa que hi ha un clar perill de cronificació de l’atur entre la joventut. Contrastant amb aquesta lleugera millora, cal destacar que només l’11,1% de les persones entre 16 i 29 anys que es troben en situació d’atur, tenen algun tipus de subsidi o prestació econòmica. Aquesta cobertura social no para de disminuir: en relació al trimestre anterior ha baixat un 3,9% i respecte el 3r trimestre del 2012, la caiguda és de 6,3 punts. Una altra dada preocupant, és la disminució de la taxa d’emancipació la qual es situa a un 1% menys que el trimestre anterior, 24,3%. Aquesta xifra marca un mínim des de l’inici de la crisi i se situa a nivells de fa 10 anys.

Davant aquest nou anàlisi, el Consell de la Joventut de Barcelona, considerem que no hi ha cap millora substancial en la situació que vivim les persones joves de Catalunya. Coincidint amb la publicació d’un informe de la Organització Mundial de la Salut sobre les desigualtats en salut que constata que la situació que viu l’Estat Espanyol pel que fa a l‘atur juvenil ha arribat a proporcions d’emergència sanitària, només podem exigir, una vegada més, la necessitat imperiosa de les administracions públiques d’abordar aquesta problemàtica social. Només amb polítiques públiques d’ocupació valentes (les quals passen per la derogació de les dues anteriors reformes laborals) es podrà posar fi a aquesta xacra social que empobreix a les persones joves i els impossibilita desenvolupar amb autonomia i llibertat un projecte de vida propi.

 

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