Notícies

Per un mercat laboral i un país més dignes, el Primer de Maig mobilitza’t i reclama els teus drets!

Categories: Formació Habitatge Món laboral Notícies

5 de maig de 2014

Un any més, el Primer de Maig celebrem el Dia Internacional dels Treballadors i Treballadores. Aquesta festa del moviment obrer, nascuda el 1886 per reclamar la jornada laboral de 8 hores – llavors saldada amb l’assassinat dels Màrtirs de Chicago–, continua essent vigent en un context de constant pèrdua de drets laborals, uns drets llargament reivindicats pels sindicats i la societat civil que havien aconseguit augmentar la protecció dels col·lectius més vulnerables com són les persones joves i les dones.

Avui la situació política i econòmica ens arrossega a retrocessos importants en matèria de benestar. Segons dades recents de l’Observatori Català de la Joventut, des de l’inici de la crisi l’any 2007 el nombre de joves ocupades ha disminuït a la meitat, passant de 806.400 a 407.900, el que suposa una enorme destrucció de llocs de treball ocupats per joves. La taxa d’atur juvenil se situa en el 37,4% entre els 16 i els 29 anys, i frega el 50% en el tram de 16 a 24. Afecta més als nois més joves, sense estudis i d’origen estranger. L’atur de llarga durada, indicador que mesura el risc d’exclusió social, ha arribat al màxim històric de 19,3% durant el segon trimestre de 2013. Tot i que aquest col·lectiu hauria de ser objecte prioritari de les intervencions públiques en trobar-se en una posició de major risc, les dades demostren que només el 13% de les persones joves aturades reben algun tipus de subsidi o prestació social. La precarietat juvenil és un problema que s’ha vist agreujat amb l’esclat de la crisi i les mesures polítiques que s’han imposat per a pal·liar-la, però cal tenir present que la subprotecció i vulnerabilitat del jovent en el mercat laboral és una qüestió estructural, llargament arrossegada i mai resolta per part de les administracions públiques, fins al punt que s’ha normalitzat la precarització com a entrada al món del treball, impactant també en les possibilitats d’accedir a l’habitatge i de desenvolupar un projecte de vida autònom.

Les dones també han patit aquest fenomen i, per tant, les dones joves pateixen una doble discriminació tant a l’hora d’incorporar-se al mercat laboral, com per les condicions en què s’hi mantenen (o no) al llarg de la seva trajectòria. La taxa d’activitat femenina sempre ha estat menor que la masculina, i malgrat la inicial destrucció de llocs de treball en sectors masculinitzats com la indústria i la construcció, en l’actualitat les retallades en la despesa pública impacten en els àmbits de l’educació, la sanitat i els serveis socials, ocupats majoritàriament per dones. El nivell d’ocupació femenina varia molt en funció de les càrregues familiars, especialment el fet de tenir fills o filles. La inexistència del quart pilar de l’Estat del Benestar, és a dir programes de conciliació familiar i polítiques actives de suport a l’autonomia de les persones –amb diversitat funcional, joves, etcètera– és un llast molt pesat per a la plena emancipació de les dones treballadores, en tant que són les que tradicionalment s’ocupen de les persones dependents. Però no acaba aquí: els índexs de temporalitat entre dones (23,8%) tripliquen els corresponents als homes, mentre la bretxa salarial –és a dir, diferència de sou per fer la mateixa feina– és de gairebé el 20%. Totes aquestes xifres contrasten amb la major formació de les dones, que tanmateix tenen un 60% més de presència en els llocs de treball pitjor remunerats i una clara subrepresentació en càrrecs de direcció i gerència.

En definitiva, les dades demostren que la desigualtat entre homes i dones en l’àmbit laboral és alarmant. Les polítiques públiques desenvolupades per afrontar la crisi han agreujat i accentuat les distàncies. Així, la reforma laboral ha tingut un impacte especialment negatiu sobre les dones en tant que amplia la desregulació de la franja laboral diària i això té efecte sobre la conciliació laboral i familiar. D’altra banda, la nova proposta de reforma de l’avortament no permetrà a les dones joves decidir lliurement sobre el propi cos, fent-les més vulnerables i deixant-les en clar desavantatge pel que fa a les estratègies de promoció i consolidació dins el mercat laboral.

Per tot això, des del Consell de Joventut de Barcelona (CJB) volem sumar-nos a la celebració del Primer de Maig tot mostrant el nostre rebuig a la situació de precarietat generacional que viu la gent jove, així com la desigualtat flagrant que pateixen les dones en el mercat laboral, i proposem:

1) Establir un Salari Mínim Interprofessional de 1.200 euros, tal i com recull la Carta Social Europea (en l’actualitat és de 645,30 euros mensuals)

2) Derogar les Reformes Laborals de 2010 i 2012, introduint iniciatives que garanteixin el treball de qualitat i estable en col·laboració amb els agents econòmics i el moviment sindical, avançant cap a la definició d’un nou model productiu basat en l’economia social, la sostenibilitat ambiental i el benestar de les persones.

3) Aturar la tramitació de la reforma de l’avortament, que incidirà en la vulnerabilitat i la laminació dels drets de les dones joves a decidir sobre el seu propi cos.

4) Augmentar els recursos destinats a l’eradicació de la xacra del frau fiscal (el qual suposa un 25% del PIB), reforçant el servei d’Inspecció de Treball i garantint el compliment de la normativa laboral en matèria de contractació.

5) Implementar la Garantia Juvenil amb un finançament suficient, de manera que ofereixi feina i formació de qualitat per a les persones joves, i que el seu desenvolupament l’efectuïn les administracions més pròximes a la ciutadania.

6) Elaborar un pla de retorn per a la joventut a l’exili que s’ha vist forçada a emigrar, activant polítiques públiques a nivell estatal, nacional i local.

7) Activar mecanismes addicionals de protecció social per a la joventut emancipada en situació sobrevinguda d’atur i sense dret a prestació o subsidis, com la proposada Renda Garantida d’Emancipació que eviti fer encara més passes enrere.

8) Restituir els convenis col·lectius concertats entre patronals i organitzacions sindicals com a element central de les relacions laborals, i permetre la seva ultraactivitat i vigència mentre no es produeixi un nou pacte per assegurar els drets dels treballadors i treballadores que s’hi acullen.

La justícia social ha de construir-se sobre la base de la igualtat de drets i d’oportunitats. Condemnar la joventut, les dones o la població nouvinguda a treballar i viure en inferioritat de condicions perpetua l’exclusió i la vulnerabilitat d’aquests col·lectius.

Jove, NO CLAUDIQUIS: per un mercat laboral i un país més dignes, el Primer de Maig mobilitza’t i reclama els teus drets!

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